The electricity at home is a fundamental element for day to day and to perform many of the daily household chores. If you are building your home and still do not have an electrical installation, or if you need to change the existing one, in this post we explain how to make an electrical installation in a house. Along with the development of the times, making electrical installations can be planned on the computer and www.ige-xao.com/en/software-editor-electrical-plm-cad-and-simulation/electrical-design-software is a very useful link for anyone who want to simulate the electrical scheme before it is actually implemented.
What precautions should be taken to make an electrical installation?
To make an electrical installation in a house in conditions of total safety, it is necessary to take the following precautions:
– Cut off the power supply, disconnecting the main switch.
– Respect the current regulations contained in the RBT, Electrotechnical Regulation for Low Voltage. If in doubt, consult an authorized installer.
– Always use approved tools and products. Selection of the product should be done carefully otherwise the electrical installation is not expected to come.
How to make an electrical installation?
Making an electrical installation requires following a logical and orderly process:
1. We will make an outline of the electrical installation.
We draw in a sketch of the house, indicating the rooms and indicating in each zone where we want to place the points of light, the switches and the plugs. With markers of different colors we will connect all the plugs: 10 amps that we use for night lamps or mobile chargers. With another color we connect the plugs with more resistance, 16 amps for heating in the rooms for example. Finally, with another color, the high power plugs, 16A and 25A, are joined, which we use for the main household appliances. For example, the oven, washing machine, dishwasher, refrigerator, microwave, extractor and countertop for the kitchen; or the dryer, heater or electric radiator for the bathroom. These lines will be differentiated to the general protection picture.
The control panel and protection of an electrical installation is where the protection elements of the electrical circuit of the dwelling are located. They are composed of the following elements:
– General Automatic Switch, IGA: protects from short circuits.
– Differential Switch, ID: protects and disconnects the installation when a current leak occurs.
– Small Automatic Switches, PIA: Protects from overloads and short circuits of different elements of the house. The number of PIAs depends on the electricity of the house, which can be:
10 A. Lighting.
16 A. General purpose power points and refrigerator.
25 A. vitro and oven.
20 A. Washing machine, dishwasher and electric water heater.
16 A. Power outlets for bathrooms and kitchen aids.
25 A. Installation of electric heating.
25 A. Installation of air conditioning.
2. The tracing of electrical cables can be done superficial or embedded
Making it embedded is better, but requires masonry work, opening races on all the walls, introducing the cables and then covering them with plaster. This forces us to paint the entire house once the installation is complete. The installation by the surface can run inside decorative plastic gutters. They are manufactured in various sizes and colors, to adapt them to our walls and ceilings. Be careful when making color adjustments with our room is very important and should not be ignored.
Tip: It is advisable to place the tubes embedded in the walls in horizontal paths at a maximum of 50cm from the floor and ceiling. As for the vertical tubes, they should not be separated more than 20cm from the angles of the corners.
The cables: The color of the insulation of the cable allows its easy identification. Rigid cables are used, although it is advisable to use flexible cables because they are better handled. All the sockets are connected to the phase, neutral and ground conductor.
3. Proceed to the placement of all plugs and switches in the desired places. To be comfortable, the switches are placed 110cm from the ground and the plugs between 20-30cm from the ground. The height of placement of the mechanisms differs depending on the room and the type of mechanism. The following table shows the recommended distances from the ground:
Distribution of mechanisms:
Single bedrooms It is convenient to put two switches, one next to the entrance door and another near the bedside table, and two plugs. On the other hand, in the master bedroom it is convenient to put three switches (two switches and one of crossing), a switch switched on the entrance of the room and another near one of the bedside tables. The other switch, called the crossover switch, will be placed in the middle of the circuit next to the other bedside table. To know the total number of plugs it is better to study the needs, but you can put two 10A plugs next to the bedside tables and two plugs more than 16A for heating, television and other elements.
• Living room. It is convenient to place a switch and five or six plugs, since there it is likely that you put a standing lamp, the television, the stereo and the radiators, among other things.
• Kitchen. A switch and five 16A plugs should be placed for the washing machine, dishwasher, oven, extractor, fridge and, in addition, two plugs on the kitchen countertop for small appliances such as a microwave, blender or coffee maker. It is important, for the type of cable and power plug, to install a 25A plug for the ceramic hob.
• Bath. A switch and two plugs should be placed in case there is a bathroom stove and you use the other plug for the hair dryer or the dryer. These plugs must be near the sink at a sufficient distance from the bathtub to prevent accidents.
Bathroom safety regulations
In bathrooms, special care must be taken when carrying out an electrical installation, distinguishing between the volumes of prohibition and protection.
• Prohibition volume. This is the name of the bathroom space in which there can be no electrical installation.
• Protection volume. Inside this space you can only install lighting fixtures with special protection, Class II, without switches or sockets. As for the electric radiators, they must be equipped with a 30mA differential protection.
The water heater or thermos must always be installed outside the prohibition volume. The connection of this device must be made using a bipolar switch.
4. Installation of the wiring
Each cable from its electrical panel switch, according to the electrical diagram. All switches and plugs are connected to their corresponding line.
5. Connection of the wiring of each room, from the switch to the corresponding light point, which can be a wall lamp or a ceiling lamp.
If you want to design your own installation, it would be wise to design a schematic on imaginary work papers that can be stored and used at any time. Visiting www.ige-xao.com/en/software-editor-electrical-plm-cad-and-simulation/electrical-cad-software can help you.